Author Guidelines

For the various types of articles the journal is accepting, please see here. Note that the manuscript formats and types changed substantially on August 19, 2013, so please read the following description carefully to get familiar with the new format.

Preparing for submission Submitted manuscripts should follow the recommendations stated in Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Please review these guidelines.

In his/her covering letter, the corresponding author should reveal whether the submitted article – or very similar work - has been previously published, or is under consideration elsewhere. The authors are also asked to list at least 3 potential reviewers with full name, institution and email address. Please note: the suggested reviewers should not be from the authors’ own institute, nor a co-author of any published paper/papers of the present author/authors. The Editors reserve the right of final selection.

Please note that the submitting author (i.e. corresponding author) will be the principal contact for editorial correspondence, throughout the peer review and proofreading process, if applicable.

Plagiarism Detection Co-Action Publishing is a member of CrossCheck by CrossRef and iThenticate. iThenticate is a plagiarism screening service that verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. iThenticate checks submissions against millions of published research papers, and billions of web content.

Co-Action Publishing uses iThenticate to screen all submissions for plagiarism before publication, but authors, researchers and freelancers can also use iThenticate to screen their work before submission by visiting

Language All articles should be written in English - British or American as long as consistency is observed. SI units should be used. Please subject the manuscript to professional language editing before submitting the final version if you are not a native speaker. A list of services can be found here.

Conflict of interest and funding Authors are responsible for disclosing all relationships that could be viewed as potential conflicts of interest. Please refer to the ICMJE statement on conflicts of interest (

Ethics and consent When reporting experiments on patients or animals, please indicate whether the procedures followed were approved by your local ethics committee and/or in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (

Color illustrations There is no extra charge for color reproduction.

Supplementary material Supplementary material may be added free of charge, and will be published in the form in which it is received.

Publication fee See here.

WAIVER POLICY - please see here.

WITHDRAWAL OF MANUSCRIPT If you withdraw your manuscript after it has been peer reviewed, or after it has been typeset (but not yet published) you will be charged according to the following:

For peer review: EUR 475/USD 565 per article
For peer review and typesetting: EUR 650/USD 755 per article

Manuscript layout Wherever possible, the paper should follow the traditional layout: Begin each section, including figure and table legends, on separate sheets; insert running line and page numbers. Please provide continous line numbering for the entire manuscript.

Title page Organize the title page in the following way: 1) title of manuscript, 2) name of author(s), 3) name of department(s) and institution(s),  4) name and full postal and email address of the corresponding author who also acts as 'Guarantor' for all parts of the paper and 5) acknowledgements. – Note that the Title page will be submitted separately.

The title should be informative and accurate and at the same time trigger the interest of the reader. A short running head will be derived from the title to appear on each page of the article.

See table for specific information on the different Article types.

Abstract Full length articles must include a structured abstract of 200-300 words; Introduction - including a clearly stated objective(s) - , Material and Methods, Results and Discussion(including a clearly stated conclusion(s)).  5-10 keywords should be given; avoid using the same words as in the title. For Short Communications and Case studies the abstract should not exceed 100 words.

Section headings Please do not number section headings. Use a maximum of three levels of headings made clear by orthographic indicators, i.e. capitals, italics, bold etc.

References should follow the standard biomedical format.

Number the references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text by Arabic numerals and in parentheses, e.g. (14).The references should be listed at the end of the manuscript as regular text.

Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as 'unpublished observation(s)' or 'personal communication'.

For a key of how to abbreviate medical journal names, please consult the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus accessible at


1. May BA, Edell V, Butell S, Doughty J, Langford C. Critical thinking and clinical competence: a study of their relationship in BSN seniors. J Nurs Educ. 1999;38: 100-10.


1. Blaxter PS, Farnsworth TP. Social health and class inequalities. In: Carter C, Peel JR, editors. Equalities and inequalities in health. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press; 1976. p. 165-78.


1. UN Development Programme. Millennium Development Goals, Goal 4: reduce child mortality. (cited Oct 20, 2008).